10 – 11 April 2015   print this page

Conference organizers:

Jane Stevens Crawshaw, Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom

Irena Benyovsky Latin, Croatian institute of History, Zagreb, Croatia

Conference description:

Segregation and integration have shaped hospitals throughout their histories from a variety of perspectives: political, economic, social, religious, cultural, architectural and environmental. This conference will foreground the concepts of segregation and integration in health care institutions from Ancient times to the modern day and in an international context.

Ideas about segregation and integration in relation to hospitals could influence decisions regarding location, design, specialisation, the patient body, representations and publicity, funding and civic purpose. In so doing, they affected the internal and external function of the hospital. Within the hospital site itself patients might be segregated on the basis of their behaviour, gender, race or even class as well as their physical condition. The integration of medical teams changed, often as new technologies and specialisms were adopted. Once healed, patients could require assistance in order to reintegrate with their former communities and resume their ordinary lives. The conference will also consider the factors which affected the degree of integration and segregation which was deemed to be desirable between urban and rural sites, as well as hospitals across communities, countries and continents.

Although segregation and integration have been a prominent feature of many studies of individual institutions, this conference will be the first to examine them from a comparative perspective. In so doing, the conference will not only tell us more about hospital history but will illustrate yet again how the study of hospitals can shed light upon the history of their wider contexts.

The tenth INHH conference will consider the impact of segregation and integration on the history of the hospital through an examination of three key themes: (1) hospital sites and spaces; (2) hospital images and representations; and (3) hospital policies.

Work Schedule:


9amWelcome Jane Stevens Crawshaw and Irena Benyovsky Latin

Introduction GordanRavančić, ‘Croatian hospitals, Past and Present’

Session 1: 9.30-11am

Medieval Communities and Religion (Chair: Carole Rawcliffe)

Anna Peterson (University of St Andrews), ‘Beyond the city's walls: the lepers of Narbonne before the Black Death’

Valentina Zivkovic (Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts), ‘Rogansdictaspauperes personas utrogent Deum pro anima sua: the integration and segregation of hospitals within the framework of the sacral topography of medieval Kotor’

Clara Jáuregui (University of Barcelona), ‘A Jewish Hospital inside the Christian city. The Hekdesh of Barcelona in the late Middle Ages’

Coffee Break: 11-11.30am

Session 2:11.30-1pm

Early Modern Communities and identities (Chair: Elma Brenner)

Irena Benyovsky Latin (Croatian Institute of History, Zagreb), ‘The hospitals of Renaissance Dubrovnik - separation of the female inmates’

Annemarie Kinzelbach (Humboldt University), ‘Leprosaria: the simultaneity of segregation and integration in Southern German Towns’

RinaKralj-Brassard and Ivana Lazarević (Institute for Historical Sciences of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts), ‘Role of segregation and integration in identity formation for foundlings in HospitaleMisericordia (Dubrovnik, 17th-19th centuries)’

Lunch and poster session (1): 1-2.30pm:

Stef Eastoe (PhD Candidate, Birkbeck, University of London), ‘“Relieving gloomy and objectless lives”: welfare reform, public health and the design of the first state imbecile asylum in England’

Thibault Jacobs (PhD Candidate, UniversitéLibre de Bruxelles-ULB), ‘Charitable boundaries. Defining the social and economic space of small urban hospitals in fourteenth-century Brabant’

RaúlVillagrasaElías(PhD Candidate, Zaragoza University), ‘The assistance of orphans and mental illness sufferers in the Hospital of Nuestra Senora de Gracia of Saragosse (XV-XVI centuries) and the festivity of the Holy Innocents’

Session 3: 2.30-3.30pm

Perceptions of patients in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Chair: John Henderson)

Christina Vanja (University Kassel), ‘Segregated or integrated? Patients with physical and mental disabilities and their treatment in eighteenth-century Hessian hospitals’

David Gentilcoreand EgidioPriani(University of Leicester), ‘The admission and treatment of Pellagra patients in nineteenth-century Italy: segregation and integration at San Servolo and San Clemente, Venice’

Coffee: 3.30-4.40pm

Session 4: 4.00-5.30pm

Perceptions of patients in the twentieth century (Chair: Christopher Bonfield)

Jonathan Reinarz (University of Birmingham), ‘Segregated patients and integrated care: hospital burns units in Britain c.1845-1950’

George Weisz (McGill University), ‘Segregating or integrating chronic patients in twentieth-century American hospitals’

Anna Magdalena Elsner (King’s College, London), ‘No hospital is an island': Raymond Depardon and San Clemente’


Session 5: 9-10.30am

Experiences of segregation in the twentieth century (Chair: Jonathan Reinarz)

Kandace Bogaert (McMaster University), ‘Segregation of soldiers in Toronto's Military Base Hospital during the First World War’ immorality, infection, patient experience

Denis Goulet (University of Quebec in Three Rivers) and Robert Gagnon (University of Quebec, Montreal), ‘Linguistic, religiousand social segregation in Quebec hospitals: the case of Montreal 1850-1950’

Jean-Paul Lallemand-Stempak (Center for North American Studies (CENA), EHESS (Paris)), ‘The tarzan of the Delta': the Delta Health Center and the memories of segregation in Mound Bayou (Mississippi), 1965-83’

Coffee break: 10.30-11am

Session 6:11-12.30pm

Race in a Colonial context (Chair: Kathleen Vongsathorn)

Rosa Janet Williams (University of the Free State), ‘Race and administrative practice in Mozambique's hospitals, c.1880-1915’

Hilary Buxton (Rutgers University), ‘Allied medical apartheids: Indian troops and British hospital facilities in the Great War’

Clement Masakure (University of the Free State),‘Racial segregation and medical services' provision in Rhodesia: the case of the 'African (Native) section' of Salibury hospital (1914-40s)’

Lunch and poster session (2): 12.30-2pm:

SibyllaGoegebuer (MuseaBrugge),‘Hospital history and museum collections: an international perspective’

Ivana Horbec and Robert Skenderović (Croatian Institute of History) ‘At the gates of Christian Europe: the quarantines on the Habsburg-Ottoman border (18th-19th century)’

SnježanaPerojević (University of Split) ‘The lazaretto in Split’

Session 7:2-3pm

Hospital Design (1) (Chair: Jane Stevens Crawshaw)

Clare Hickman (King’s College, London), ‘Places of segregation and integration: the design and use of nineteenth-century asylum gardens’

Victoria Bates (University of Bristol), ‘Integrating Nature, Segregating Hazards: 'Humanistic' hospitals in the late-twentieth century’

Coffee break: 3-3.30pm

Session 8: 3.30-4.30pm

Hospital Design (2) (Chair: Jane Stevens Crawshaw)

Tamara BjažićKlarin (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts), ‘Typification - Standardization - Prefabrication: changing the image of a traditional hospital building’

David Theodore (Harvard University), ‘Dirty Dirty Dirt': automating separation in the Friesen concept hospital’

5pm: Tour of principal hospital sites

7pm: Conference closing dinner